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Hitting children is the most appropriate way to punish children, is that right? Very wrong. Research has shown the negative effects of physical punishment on children. A 2012 study highlighted many of the harmful consequences of hitting children, and clearly identified that physical punishment only has one positive outcome, namely short-term direct compliance. Meanwhile, the negative effects produced consist of neurological, physical, behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social development indicators.
A 2012 paper containing two decades of physical punishment research from around the world shows that:
- A number of studies have found that physical punishment increases the risk of negative and widespread child development outcomes, while no study has found that physical punishment improves the health of a child's development.
- Most child physical violence occurs in the context of punishment.
- A professional consensus states that parents must be supported not to commit violence against children and to take effective approaches to discipline children.
The negative effect of hitting a child
1. Children become aggressive
Hitting children is a model of punishment for aggression for children. According to Lynn Namka, EdD., Hitting a child causes more aggression in a child, even though it was initially done to stop the behavior. Children cannot always understand the difference between physical aggression that is not allowed (such as hitting and pushing), and physical aggression they receive as punishment. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, physical punishment can lead to increased aggression for children in school.
2. Children are more likely to be physically abused
Adolescents who receive physical punishment will be three times more likely to persecute their own children as adults, according to Murray A. Straus, leader of the survey "Corporal Punishment by American Parents" in 1999. Research by Straus found that only 7% of teens never beaten to physical abuse when he was an adult, while as many as 24% of teenagers who had been physically abused previously committed physical abuse of their children.
Spanking will teach children that hurting people is permissible, and this can cause them to believe that the way to solve problems is to hit. According to Ask Dr. Sears, children will continue to think like that until adulthood later, causing them to hit their children or partners.
3. cognitive development disorders
Hitting a child has a negative impact on cognitive development. A 1998 study by Murray A. Straus and Mallie J. Paschall, entitled "Corporal Punishment by Mothers and Child Cognitive Development," revealed that children who were beaten were less able to compete with the expected level of cognitive development according to their age. This can even reduce their IQ, notes Psychology Today. Hitting a child can reduce gray matter (gray connective tissue in the brain), which is an important part of children's learning abilities.
4. Emotional development disorders
Children who are physically punished can be emotionally disturbed. Children who are physically or verbally abused are more likely to show psychological disorders, according to Ask Dr. Sears. Besides that, U.S. The Department of Health and Human Service stated that hitting children is considered physical abuse and can make a child become inferior, have brain damage, attention disorders, and substance abuse. This can lead to a lack of social skills, anxiety, and depression when children are grown regardless of socioeconomic status or family history.
Stop disciplining children by hitting!
Discipline the child by hitting the child has exceeded the actual form of punishment itself. It also explains the system in which children are not allowed to participate in their own discipline. Children must understand what their mistakes are and how they can make amends.
In early childhood, the brain develops faster than other organs in the body. This makes early age a very sensitive period and very important in brain development. The pressure caused by pain and fear of being hit can affect the development and function of a child's brain, inhibit the natural growth of the brain, and cause lifelong and permanent abnormalities in the brain.
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