Medical Video: The Immune System
The immune system is one of the most important bodily functions. Because, without an immune system you will easily fall ill due to viruses, bacteria, and certain abnormalities. The immune system, also often referred to as the immune system, its function must be maintained properly so that it can protect you from various diseases. However, what does the human immune system actually work like? Find out here!
What is the immune system?
The immune system is a group of cells, proteins, tissues, and special organs that work together against everything that is harmful to the body.
This system consists of many components, ranging from cells to organs. One of the most important cell types in these tissues is white blood cells (leukocytes).
Leukocytes are produced or stored in various places in the body. Among them are the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, where these organs are known as lymphoid organs. Sometimes leukocytes are also stored in clots of lymphoid tissue (spleen gland) which are spread throughout the body.
Leukocytes move throughout the body through lymphatic vessels and blood vessels such as patrolling, monitoring the possibility of dangerous attackers.
There are two main types of leukocytes that work together to find and kill organisms or substances that cause disease, namely:
- Lymphocytes are cells that help the body remember and recognize previous invaders. Lymphocytes also help destroy the invader. There are two types of lymphocytes, namely B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Produced in the bone marrow, lymphocytes will settle and develop into B cells, or move to the thymus gland and develop into T cells.
- Phagocytes are cells that eat invaders. There are various types of cells classified as phagocytes. Each type of phagocyte has its own duties. For example, the most common type is neutrophils, which are responsible for fighting bacteria.
How does the immune system work?
Microorganisms and foreign substances that attack the body are referred to as antigens, aka germs. When antigens are detected, a series of immune responses will occur to protect the body from being infected.
In the process, several types of cells work together to recognize antigens and respond. These cells then stimulate B lymphocytes to produce antibodies. Antibodies are proteins specifically designed to attach to certain antigens. After that, the T cell looks for the antigen that has been boarded and destroys it. T cells also help signal other cells (such as phagocytes) to do their job.
Once produced, antibodies will be in a person's body for some time, so that when the antigen or germs return, antibodies are available to carry out their mission.
Antibodies can also neutralize poisons produced by organisms and activate a group of proteins called complement. Complement is a part of the immune system that helps kill bacteria, viruses or infected cells.
Together, all special cells and parts of the immune system produce protection for the body against disease. This protection is called immunity.
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