Medical Video: Medical Animation: HIV and AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks cells in the immune system and interferes with immune function. Generally, there are 3 main ways a person can get HIV, namely: unsafe sexual activity, blood transfusion, and from mother to child. Here is some further information about the spread of HIV.
What are some unexpected causes for someone getting HIV?
Although rare, some of the following may also cause a person to get HIV:
- Oral sex
- Infected blood from wounds in the mouth and gums bleed, such as through "deep" kissing, biting through the skin, and eating food that has been chewed by HIV positive people
- Needles and objects that penetrate the skin contaminated with HIV, especially needle scars in medical situations
- Blood and clotting factors for transfusion, and organ and tissue transplants
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Attention to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in recent decades. However, this disease is still a major health issue throughout the world. High mortality and spread indicate that more attention is needed to prevent the spread of the virus.
The number and risk of getting HIV from an infected person varies depending on exposure. Understanding how diseases are transmitted can help you protect yourself better.
HIV is only transmitted through bodily fluids, such as:
- Vaginal fluid
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Then, what are the main ways a person can get HIV?
1. Passing through blood
The most common HIV spreads through blood.
Blood transfusion directly from infected blood donors is a high possibility for transmission. Although blood transfusions from infected people are very likely to spread disease, examination measures have been tightened since 1985. Blood donations are always tested for HIV. If proven positive, blood donations will be discarded. Although security measures have been taken, there is still a small risk that HIV-infected blood is still used in blood transfusions.
The use of shared needles for drug use and unintentional use of the medical environment is another way of spreading HIV. However, this method rarely spreads the disease compared to blood transfusions. The CDC estimates that 63 out of 10,000 exposure to needles used together can cause spread. For syringes, the number drops to 23 out of 10,000 exposures.
Transmitting HIV through bites, saliva or secretion of body fluids (such as semen or saliva) only has a low risk of getting you infected with HIV.
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2. Through sexual relations
You can be at high risk of getting HIV while having sex with someone who is infected with HIV.
Anal and vaginal sexual activity can transmit HIV through heterosexual contact, especially if without using a condom.
All forms of oral relations include the "low risk" group. However, you can still transmit or get HIV from oral relationships, especially if it involves ejaculation in the mouth.
It is important to always protect yourself during sex. If you are going to have sexual relations with other people, use a condom that is a protector of semen and vaginal fluids as the best way to prevent HIV infection.
Sex with condoms cannot eliminate the risk of HIV transmission, because there is a risk of improper use and tearing of condoms. If you are sexually active, you and your partner should consider HIV testing to ensure the safety of both of you.
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3. Transmission from mother to child
Apart from sexual blood and water, if a woman is infected with HIV, she can transmit HIV to the baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Women infected with HIV may not breastfeed babies because they can spread through breast milk. In addition, HIV can also be transmitted to babies through food that has been chewed by mothers or caregivers infected with HIV, even though the risk is very low.