What are the side effects of birth control pills that may occur?


Medical Video: Medical & Health Questions : About Side Effects of Contraceptive Pills

According to data from the Ministry of Health, there are at least 75.88% of active family planning coverage in Indonesia. Of these figures, 59.3% of married women use modern family planning methods, namely using birth control pills, implants, family planning injections, and IUDs.

How the birth control pills work

Contraceptive pills contain the hormones estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization in the body. If this contraceptive drug is taken routinely, it can prevent pregnancy from up to 95%. Birth control pills work in three ways, namely:

  • Prevents ovulation, so that the egg cannot be released from the ovary.
  • Changing the condition of the cervix, thickens mucus in the cervix so that sperm are difficult to move towards the uterus.
  • Prevents the maturation of the uterine wall, which is used as a place to attach and fetal body. If fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg cannot attach to the uterine wall.

Possible side effects from birth control pills

Oral contraceptives are indeed effective enough to prevent or delay pregnancy, but do you know there are various side effects caused when taking birth control pills. What are they?

1. More blood spots or longer menstruation

Nearly 50% of people who use birth control pills, bleed or speck blood from their vagina outside the usual menstrual schedule. At least this will occur approximately the first 3 months of using PK pills. During removing blood spots, birth control pills will still be effective in preventing pregnancy. Birth control pills make the uterus always decay so that it is not ready and ripe if fertilization occurs. The decay of the uterine wall makes bleeding more frequent. When taking birth control pills, the uterus will adjust to continue to decay to prevent pregnancy. However, if you experience heavy bleeding for 3 days or more, you should consult this with your doctor.

2. A feeling of nausea arises

Some people experience mild nausea symptoms, but maybe some others experience moderate levels of nausea when taking birth control pills. These side effects usually occur for a short period of time. Taking birth control pills by swallowing together with food or drinking it before bedtime can help prevent nausea from appearing. But if the nausea that appears is very severe, then you are advised to see a doctor.

3. Pain in the breast

Consumption of birth control pills can cause enlarged breasts or even pain in the breast. This effect occurs in the first weeks after taking the pill and will disappear after that. Reducing foods or drinks that contain caffeine and sugar, and using the right size bra, can relieve the symptoms of breast pain that you feel.

4. Headaches or migraines

Unbalanced hormone levels related to the reproductive system, such as estrogen and progesterone, can cause symptoms of headaches and migraines. Therefore, taking different birth control pills with different types and doses will cause different levels of headaches. Some studies state that birth control pills with low hormone levels will reduce the risk of headache symptoms.

5. Increased weight

Until now there is no strong scientific evidence that shows the consumption of birth control pills can make weight gain. However, some women who take birth control pills state that they experience edema (swelling due to retention of fluid in the body) in the breast and hip. The estrogen contained in birth control pills can also affect fat cells. The effect that occurs is to make fat cells bigger than the previous size, but not make the cells multiply.

6. Mood often changes

The study, conducted in 90 women conducted in 2015, found that the use of birth control pills is related to the thinning of the orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate cortex brain which is part of the brain associated with cognitive function, as a stimulus recipient, and respondent. Researchers from the study said, moods can change due to thinning in parts of the brain.

7. Reducing or increasing arousal

Because it contains estrogen and progesterone, birth control pills can affect a woman's sexual arousal. For some people birth control pills can reduce arousal, while for some others consumption of this drug can actually increase sexual desire.

8. Leucorrhoea

For some people who experience vaginal discharge from taking birth control pills, this can increase or decrease lubrication in the vagina and affect sexual desire. Leucorrhoea symptoms are usually harmless and last for a short time.


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What are the side effects of birth control pills that may occur?
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