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Everyday, our skin is exposed to sunlight. Without realizing it, in the sun there is also radiation from ultraviolet (UV) light. Sun radiation on the skin is very dangerous, even increasing your risk of skin cancer.
Actually, sunlight is needed in the formation and health of bones because sunlight can help produce vitamin D by the body. However, too much exposure to sunlight on the skin can also have a negative impact. If your skin is not strong with exposure to direct sunlight for a long time, maybe your skin will burn.
Solar radiation can cause cell damage
The outer layer of the skin has cells containing melanin pigments. Melanin protects the skin from ultraviolet light which can burn the skin, reduce skin elasticity, and can cause you to experience premature aging.
Too much and often your skin is exposed to sunlight can cause your skin to burn. UV rays can penetrate the outer skin layer and enter the deeper layers of the skin, which can damage or kill skin cells. Exposed to exposure to ultraviolet light for years can cause you to get skin cancer.
UV light can cause DNA damage to skin cells. When skin cells are actively dividing and multiplying, these cells are very susceptible to DNA damage. DNA damage that is too severe can cause cell death.
However, actually skin cells have a mechanism to respond to and repair damaged DNA in cells. If the mechanism does not allow repair of all DNA in the cell, a malfunction will occur. The failure of the function of skin cells in repairing this damage can cause DNA in cells to mutate, which in turn can cause uncontrolled cell growth, cell transformation, and the development of skin cancer.
The effect of ultraviolet light on this skin depends on:
- Types of ultraviolet light, the proportion of UV B and UV A
- The amount and intensity of the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light
- The stage where skin cells are in the process of normal division or in renewal
Skin cancer growth
Cancer begins to grow when normal skin cells begin to change and grow out of control. There are three main types of skin cancer, namely melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.
Melanoma develops in melanocytes, which are a group of cells that produce melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, can develop very quickly if not treated immediately and can spread to other body parts. Ultraviolet light exposure and sunburn, especially during childhood are risk factors for this disease. Genetic factors and weakness of the immune system can also contribute to this disease.
Nonmelanoma skin cancer
This type of skin cancer is less deadly than melanoma. This nonmelanoma skin cancer consists of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, as well as other less frequent forms.
Squamous cell carcinoma
This type of skin cancer is usually caused by UV radiation, but can also appear on burned skin, damaged by chemicals, or exposed to x-rays. This type of cancer can spread to other body parts.
Basal cell carcinoma
Is the most common type of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma can be caused by long-term exposure to UV radiation from the sun or can develop in people who receive radiation therapy during childhood. This type of skin cancer usually grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
Other skin problems due to solar radiation
In addition to skin cancer, solar radiation can also cause actinic keratosis and premature aging. Actinic keratosis is skin growth that occurs in parts of the body exposed to sunlight. Usually, those affected by actinic keratosis are parts of the body that are often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, hands, arms and neck. Actinic keratosis is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma.
Early aging is characterized by skin becoming thick, wrinkled, and rough. Exposure to sunlight from time to time can cause this to happen. However, don't worry, premature aging can be avoided by protecting your skin from UV radiation.
Individuals who do not have a lot of melanin pigments and are prone to burning skin should protect their skin from UV light by covering sensitive areas, wearing sunscreen or sunblock depend on requirement, limit the time they are exposed to the sun, especially between 10 am and 2 pm (the time when the sun is hot).
Sun exposure can also cause discolored skin, discoloration of the skin, telangiectasias (widening of small blood vessels under the skin), and elastosis (damage to elastic and collagen tissue which causes skin stripes, wrinkles, and sagging skin).
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