5 Main Causes of Someone Experiencing Blindness


Medical Video: How Blind People Actually See the World

The cause of blindness can be from a variety of conditions, but often it is caused by certain diseases or eye disorders. In the normal eye, light entering the eye through the cornea and lens will be focused by the iris to form the image. The light is then projected onto the back wall of the eye, where it is felt by millions of tiny nerve endings that form the retina. From here, the retina translates images into nerve stimuli that are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. When one of these parts of the eye is damaged, either because of illness or injury, blindness can occur. Therefore, you should always be aware of your eye health, especially in the conditions below as the most common cause of blindness.

What is called blindness?

People who will suffer from blindness usually experience vision problems first, which will then develop into blindness. Blindness can affect one or both eyes, and does not always cause total darkness. Many people who are considered blind can still see some light or shadow, but cannot see everything clearly.

What are the most common causes of blindness?

1. Cataracts

Cataracts are opacity in the eyepiece. In cataract treatment, the lens inside the eye is taken and replaced with a clear artificial lens. In diabetic retinopathy, the retinal blood vessels will be affected and begin to leak. Treatment involves photocoagulation by using a laser to destroy blood vessels that leak and prevent abnormal blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). Cataracts can usually be immediately recognized by the cloudy part of the pupil.

2. Glaucoma

Glaucoma usually occurs when fluid pressure in one or both eyes slowly increases. This pressure damages the optic nerve and retina, which causes a gradual decrease in peripheral vision. Vision loss due to glaucoma cannot be restored, but this disease can be managed through the use of prescription eye drops or surgery. It is important to do eye checks regularly, so you can be aware of this condition early. That way, you can save your vision before it's too late.

3. Macular degeneration

The most common cause of blindness associated with aging is macular degeneration. Macular degeneration can cause loss of vision center due to the absence of photoreceptors (light sensor cells). This condition weakens parents who have difficulty walking and often stay in the house. Macular degeneration is a disease that affects the macula, which is the area responsible for a good and detailed center of vision.

4. Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy occurs when systemic damage caused by diabetes begins to affect the retina. In particular, the blood vessels that nourish the retina can be negatively affected by diabetes, causing blindness due to bleeding and damage to the retina. The best treatment for diabetic retinopathy is to control diabetes more strictly. If the disease is more severe, the patient can undergo surgery to protect their eyes.

5. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) affects 1.6 million people worldwide and is a cause of inherited blindness. RP can cause slow but progressive blindness in overall vision. Just like diabetic retinopathy, this disease is associated with loss of photoreceptors. For now, there is no right treatment for RP. Mocular genetic therapy may provide a glimmer of hope, even though it has a big risk. It is important to remember that even successful improvement of genetic functions can only slow down or prevent further damage.

Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited eye condition. It affects the peripheral part of the middle of the retina, but the center of vision is not affected. Clinically, the first signs that can be observed are narrowing of the retinal arterioles (small arteries in the retina). Then, the formation of the retinal pigment known as "spica of bone" and which changes the appearance of the optic nerve head is very clear.


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5 Main Causes of Someone Experiencing Blindness
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